Evaluation of the audio description event

Aims Were these met?  Improvements / actions
To “have a go” at audio description Experimental approach – inviting writers Involve more visually impaired writers
To be creative and have fun Creative writers

Participants and writers said it was “enjoyable”, “fun”, “brilliant” etc

Several descriptions the same artworks to give different viewpoints
To improve access to works in the gallery “They made the paintings come alive and it was a great way to describe the art to the visually impaired.” BSL interpretation for further layers of accessibility
To bring visually impaired and sighted people together Yes. Good balance, with only slightly more sighted people

 

Informal, friendly atmosphere

 

“I could feel a real sense of community among us all, writers and audience. Like we were on a bit of an adventure…”

Ensure sighted people don’t dominate discussions through facilitation.

Manage numbers through invitations or through timetabling the event differently (fewer descriptions / longer event / drop-in / descriptions running concurrently etc).

To show that creative audio description is of interest and engages a broad audience Yes – responses and engagement of visually impaired and sighted people Consider making it a public event
(but aim for balance as above)
To get people talking about art and about accessibility Yes – as above

“There is a curious tension between writing about art and writing/performing for access which has got me thinking”

Use social media to amplify discussion
To produce guidelines for audio describing artworks

 

Writers found these useful and had clearly referred to them https://sortitout24.wordpress.com/
2018/05/30/guidelines-for-creative-audio-description/
To pilot a low-cost approach that could be easily replicated Yes – focus was on delivering live event, as research participants valued presence of people in the gallery more than technology An exercise for local writers’ groups e.g. libraries’ writing groups.

Low cost meant that high quality recordings were out of scope

(290 words)

 

See also my report of the event: An adventure in audio description report (pdf 1.22MB), which appears on an earlier blog post.

 

And a Presentation Gill Crawshaw gc269357 LAUMACUP705 (pdf 1.07 MB) given to the MA Curation Practices cohort at our end of year symposium at Tate Liverpool.

 

 

 

 

The writers and their chosen artworks

Brian Lewis, Eleanor Snare, Emma Bolland (2018), Matthew Bellwood, Peadar O’Dea and Terry Simpson were the writers who rose to the challenge of creating and reading a description for my event on 19 July. Their varied styles and approaches to the task resulted in a wonderful selection of descriptions. They engaged the audience’s emotions and intellect with witty, clever and moving readings, which included stories, a letter and a poem. Writers not only described the artworks, but included political and historical context, information about the artist’s life and work, and their own interpretations.

The artworks that the writers chose to describe were:

  • Maples Demolition, Euston Road (1960) by Frank Auerbach – Brian Lewis
  • The Remains (2007) by Roger Palmer – Matthew Bellwood
  • Movie (2015) by Hilary Lloyd – Emma Bolland
  • The Convent Garden (1878) by Francis S. Walker – Peadar O’Dea
  • The Bridesmaid (1883-85) by James Tissot – Eleanor Snare
  • Retribution (1858) by Edward Armitage – Terry Simpson.

IMG_7227Brian Lewis’s detailed examination of an abstract work showed how much was represented in this painting of the pulling down a furniture store in London: Maples Demolition, Euston Road. Through the context of the artist’s body of work and the post-war period, we discovered how the layering of thickly applied oil paint reflected the subject matter and the period. Brian’s use of directional navigation to guide us round the picture was appropriate and effective. The tactile qualities of this work were not lost on us, even though we were unable to touch.

DSC00595Meanwhile, Matthew Bellwood told a fascinating tale of Botany Bay and its links to Leeds. A contemporary work in neon, quite minimal and stark, the layers of The Remains were revealed through research – into the artist’s other work and previous exhibitions, the woollen trade and industry of Leeds, the meaning of words and names, Captain Cook’s voyages, and the erasing of Aboriginal culture in Australia. A complex description arose from a deceptively simple installation. We made discoveries of our own, centuries after Discovery sailed.

EmmaIn the same gallery, showing contemporary works in the collection, Emma Bolland found her route in to her description of Movie through the letter form. This set up a conceptual dialogue with the visitor. Her description was an interrogation of what it means to see or to look at things differently, for gallery visitors to have different perceptions of artworks – from the artist, from other visitors and from curators. In addition, the bright daylight in the gallery all but obscured the moving image element of this installation, a fact that Emma wove in to her description, musing on what is and isn’t visible.

PHOTO-2018-07-19-17-43-38Peadar O’Dea, with his story of an agnostic Mother Superior, challenged by a novice in The Convent Garden, had introduced disabled characters, “… because I just like to write about disabled characters. I thought: Why not?” And why not introduce a fleeting bluebird, if it improves the plot? Playing around with timelines and describing the poses of the characters “as if caught in a painting” was inventive, introducing humour and playfulness. The painting was originally created to prompt viewers to make up stories. The stories we tell today may be very different from those imagined by the artist.

An art gallery with Victorian pictures on dark red walls. Several people stand around

One of the research participants had suggested that poetry is a good way to bring paintings to life. That was certainly the case with Eleanor Snare’s poem which accompanied The Bridesmaid. She wrote from the point of view of a messenger boy who appears in the foreground of the painting, chosen because he is the nearest person to the audience. Her beautiful poem described the scene with longing and wonder. This proved that a good description need not include every last detail in a picture – that would be boring and difficult to follow. Instead, Eleanor cleverly revealed key details through the observations of the boy.

Terry Simpson chose the mammoth Victorian painting Retribution. Such a significant and well-known (loved?) presence in the gallery seemed an appropriate ending to the event. It’s certainly a controversial picture, painted at the height of the British Empire.
Heroic Britannia is PHOTO-2018-07-19-17-43-46

shown exacting revenge on the Indian tiger. The painting in fact represents a shameful series of events provoked by Britain’s savage treatment of the people of India. Terry was able to put this into context and give a contemporary interpretation. Conflicting feelings arose from this work: condemning the injustice of empire while admiring the representation of a strong woman, “A Victorian super-heroine”.

In the discussions that followed the readings, participants were enthusiastic about the descriptions, which they felt had been effective in bringing the artworks to life and awakening the imagination. People picked out phrases or sentences that they particularly liked, or styles that they felt were evocative of a mood, scenario or historic period. Reading the drafts of the descriptions before the event, I had been impressed with the high quality of the descriptions, as well as the varied styles.

 

References

Armitage, E. (1858) Retribution [Oil on canvas]. Leeds Art Gallery, Leeds.

Auerbach, F. (1960) Maples Demolition, Euston Road [Oil on board]. Leeds Art Gallery, Leeds.

Bolland, E. (2018) ‘Silvery, Silvery’ Emma Bolland – Artist, writer, 3 August.Available at: https://emmabolland.com/2018/08/03/silvery-silvery/ (Accessed: 3 August 2018).

Lloyd, H. (2015) Movie [Digital film with sound, fan and fabric]. Leeds Art Gallery, Leeds.

Palmer, R. (2007) The Remains [Neon]. Leeds Art Gallery, Leeds.

Tissot, J.J. (1883 – 85) The Bridesmaid [Oil on canvas]. Leeds Art Gallery, Leeds.

Walker, F.S. (1878) The Convent Garden [oil on canvas]. Leeds Art Gallery, Leeds.

An adventure in audio description

I’ve been writing a couple of reports about last week’s audio description event – one as a reflection and record, to be shared with interested people as well as being an appendix to my dissertation: An adventure in audio description report (pdf 1.22MB). Another for the university website (see https://www.leeds-art.ac.uk/news-events/news/an-adventure-in-audio-description/). Below is an article before severe editing – and a few more photos.

Twenty five people, a mix of visually impaired and sighted people, met at Leeds Art Gallery last week to explore the possibilities of audio description in the gallery. I invited them as part of my final MA project. I have been researching the experiences of blind and partially sighted gallery visitors, talking to visually impaired people about their connections to and appreciation of artworks in the gallery. This research informed the curatorial event: an experiment with live audio description.

The research participants had shared their experiences – positive and negative – of previous gallery visits and suggested ways that their enjoyment of art could be enhanced. Engaging all the senses, particularly hearing and touch, was important.

What was valued highly, and made gallery visits memorable for all participants, was having staff available to talk to, who could explain and answer questions, and who could guide them to artworks of interest. Pre-recorded audio guides can be useful, but they don’t match the responsiveness and enthusiasm that a worker or volunteer in the gallery can provide.

Blind and partially sighted people would not be the only people to benefit from being able to hear explanations or descriptions of artworks, or being able to touch objects. Participants agreed that these should be available to all gallery visitors and would improve everyone’s experience.

While participants were familiar with audio description in the theatre or on television, nobody had come across it in an art gallery. Audio description relates key visual elements of a scene. In film, theatre or TV it aims to be as objective as possible. Describing art, on the other hand, offers opportunities for innovation and creativity. With this in mind, I invited six writers, including artists, poets and storytellers, to produce a description of an artwork in Leeds Art Gallery’s collection, and to read it out at the event, to an audience comprising visually impaired and sighted people.

Brian Lewis, Eleanor Snare, Emma Bolland, Matthew Bellwood (pictured above describing Roger Palmer’s The Remains), Peadar O’Dea and Terry Simpson were the writers who rose to the occasion. Their varied styles and approaches to the task resulted in a wonderful selection of descriptions. They engaged the audience’s emotions and intellect with witty, clever and moving readings, which included stories, a letter and a poem. Writers not only described the artworks, but included political and historical context, information about the artist’s life and work, and their own interpretations.

In the discussions that followed, participants were enthusiastic about the descriptions, which they felt had been effective in bringing the artworks to life and awakening the imagination.  The event showed that improving accessibility can be creative and can benefit everyone.  But, more than anything, it had encouraged everyone to look more closely, to notice more detail and to make deeper connections with art.

Many thanks to Leeds Art Gallery for supporting this event.

My report of the event: An adventure in audio description report (pdf 1.22MB).

An art gallery with Victorian pictures on dark red walls. Several people stand around
Elly Snare reads her poem on Tissot’s The Bridesmaid

Looking closely: audio description event, Leeds Art Gallery 19.7.18

The story tellers made the paintings come alive and was a great way to describe the art to the visually impaired (participant at event).

This was the “instance of curatorial practice” I organised as part of the MA Curation practices. An experiment with audio description: I invited six writers to create an audio description of an artwork in Leeds Art Gallery and to read it out to an invited audience made up of blind and partially sighted, and sighted, people.

Four people stand in front of a large abstract painting
Discussing Frank Auerbach’s painting with Brian Lewis

The planning paid off, it was a good event, largely thanks to the wonderful descriptions that the writers had produced. The works they covered:

  • Brian Lewis – Maples Demolition, Euston Road (1960) by Frank Auerbach
  • Matthew Bellwood – The Remains (2007) by Roger Palmer
  • Emma Bolland – Movie (2015) by Hilary Lloyd
  • Peadar O’Dea – The Convent Garden (1878) by Francis S. Walker
  • Elly Snare – The Bridesmaid (1883-85) by James Tissot
  • Terry Simpson – Retribution (1858) by Edward Armitage.
PHOTO-2018-07-19-17-43-46
Terry Simpson prepares to describe Edward Armitage’s Retribution
IMG_7234
Poet Elly Snare mid flow, bringing Tissot’s The Bridesmaid to life

I’d made a few last minute changes to my plans, because I got wind that a few extra people, as well as those invited, were going to turn up. While it was exciting that a lot of people were interested in the event, extra bodies posed some logistical issues. I decided to split the group into two. Each group would hear three descriptions each rather than all six. This worked OK with careful timetabling and by drafting in a friend to help out. The added bonus of this approach meant there was more time for questions, discussion and taking a close look at the artwork.

Five people stand round in a bright art gallery, listening to a woman reading
Emma Bolland reads her text about Movie by Hilary Lloyd

The descriptions, which included a poem, stories, a letter to the viewer, historical contexts and personal viewpoints, were all brilliant, from their different approaches. There were appreciative comments from participants and writers and everyone seemed to enjoy the event. The descriptions were effective in bringing artworks in Leeds Art Gallery’s collection to life, and in getting everyone there to look more closely at the art.

 

I’m gathering more feedback and will do a proper evaluation of the event. For now, here are some photos.

 

Huge thanks to all the writers and to Leeds Art Gallery for letting me hold the event there, and to education officer Amanda Phillips for her support.

Links to audio recordings

Emma Bolland: https://soundcloud.com/emmabolland/silvery-silvery

Peadar O’Dea: https://soundcloud.com/gill-crawshaw/peadar-odea-reads-the-convent-garden/s-QOPGR

Eleanor Snare: https://soundcloud.com/gill-crawshaw/eleanor-snare-reads-poem-the-bridesmaid/s-YY7JX

Terry Simpson: https://soundcloud.com/gill-crawshaw/terry-simpson-describes-retribution/s-mCXe4

 

 

 

Art writing and audio description

(main picture: Movie (2015) by Hilary Lloyd).

Yesterday I met two of the writers who are taking part in my final project. We met in Leeds Art Gallery to discuss the project a bit more and so they could decide on which work to audio describe.

This resulted in useful discussion about approaches and role:

  • Intermediary – between specific audience, rather than general audience
  • Mix of approaches from different writers
  • If something is indistinct to sighted person, is that a good subject for description? Is it indistinct because of artist’s intention or due to the environment of this gallery (ie brightly lit gallery with skylights means a projected film is very faint)? Perhaps this doesn’t matter, as you are describing the work under the conditions it is in.
  • Styles of art writing – reflective criticism, not straight art criticism, but writing about art that incorporates the writer’s subjectivity.
  • Could you audio describe moving image? How would this differ from audio description for film / television, which aims for objectivity? Should you treat description for moving image in a gallery as an artwork or as a film / tv programme? Something to explore at a later date.

 

Helped me to describe and situate my event: as a “sampler” or taster of different creative approaches to audio description.

 

Pictured above, artworks that are under consideration:

Maples Demolition, Euston Road (1960), Frank Auerbach

Movie (2015), Hilary Lloyd

The Remains (2007), Roger Palmer

Reflections on the Thames, Westminster (1880), John Atkinson Grimshaw.

 

 

 

 

 

 

“I don’t see why you shouldn’t enjoy it just because you can’t see.”

Today I visited a group of older blind and partially sighted people who meet fortnightly at Leeds Jewish Welfare Board. Of the nine members present, most were over 80 with at least three in their 90s. We had a great discussion, and a couple of people were really engaged and interested. It will be great if one or two can come to the July event.

Comments entirely consistent with research interviews. One woman asked if I’d described the paintings during the interviews – my reply: yes, but I’ve learned that you need to prepare in advance to do it justice. Tried demonstrating my lack of skill by describing a boardroom portrait!

This group were keen on touch and audio description or recorded audio guides. No comments on size of label text though.

“If you touch things, you know what they are.”

[The gallery] is “nice and quiet.”

“Quite an experience.”

[There needs to be] “somewhere to sit.”

 

 

 

 

Guidelines for creative audio description

I drafted some pointers to aid the describers who I’m recruiting for my curated event: creative audio descriptions of items in Leeds Art Gallery’s collection. Influenced by a few particular writers / artists.

Some suggestions to help you write an audio description

‘Abandon the pretext of objectivity. It is impossible and besides the point’ (Kleege, 2018).

‘I wouldn’t worry about trying to get things right straight away, what is more important is to have a go’ (Partington, 2017).

‘We were drawn into it, they explained it, the way it was lit, the brightness, the colours, it came to life!’ (research participant, 2018).

Be creative

  • Don’t worry about objectivity – an interesting, enthusiastic description is much better.
  • Feel free to use poetry, sound, story-telling. Tell us why you’ve chosen this piece. Evoke the senses and engage the audience.
  • So long as you cover the basics, have a bit of fun!

Choose an artwork

  • From the Art Gallery’s collection, not from a temporary exhibition. If in doubt, ask a member of staff.
  • It might be easier to choose something you have strong feelings about, positive or negative. Something you are drawn to for whatever reason.
  • A very dark paintings, where there is little difference between colours. Partially sighted people find these more difficult to interpret.
  • Don’t choose works that are mounted high up on the wall. Eye level is good.
  • Abstract and contemporary works are fine.
  • Research the work a little so you can answer basic questions – but you don’t have be an expert.

Get the basics in early: state the obvious

  • What is it? Painting, film, sculpture, installation etc.
  • Artist, title of artwork, year it was created, when the artist was born and died.
  • Size, either as a measurement or in comparison to a common object.
  • How it is displayed: on the wall, a plinth, in a case etc.
  • Describe what you see, state the obvious!

What’s the impact? What’s striking about it? Then some detail

  • Describe the overall impression, the composition and the things that the eye is drawn to.
  • Try to convey the impact of the work, its wow factor.
  • If it’s significant, describe the media / materials, or particular techniques that the artist has used – and why.
  • Describe colours, tones and light / shade.
  • Does it have any tactile qualities you could describe?
  • Does it evoke any other senses or particular emotions?
  • Once you have set the scene, move onto the details.
  • But you don’t need to describe every single thing, just the things you think are significant.
  • Give some context, whatever you feel is important: historical period, artistic movement, political events, influences, period of artist’s life, relationships etc.
  • Why is this in the gallery? What’s important about it?

General tips

  • Move in a logical, sequential order around the artwork, don’t jump around it.
  • Don’t describe something as “over there” or “as you can see here”. Say “in the top right hand corner” etc.
  • But you don’t need to completely avoid words like “see” and other words rooted in vision. They are part of everyday language, used by everyone.
  • Be open to questions. Or you might want to ask your own questions.

References

Kleege, Georgina (2018) More Than Meets the Eye: What Blindness Brings to Art. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Partington, Z. (2017) [Panel discussion] at Ways of Seeing Art, Tate Modern, London, 23-26 February. Available at: http://www.tate.org.uk/whats-on/tate-modern/tate-exchange/workshop/ways-seeing-art (Accessed: 27 April 2018).

Sensing Culture (2018) Audio Description. Available at: http://www.sensingculture.org.uk/resources/audio-description/ (Accessed: 30 June 2018).

 

Curated project proposal: creative audio description

I am planning to hold an audio described event in Leeds Art Gallery in July.

I will be inviting about six writers and poets to write an audio description of one of the works in the Gallery’s permanent collection, then read it to an audience made up of of visually impaired and sighted people.

 

Rationale:

  • visually impaired people I’ve spoken to so far use audio description regularly – for TV and theatre, but little experience in gallery. One person who had experienced it thought it was marvellous
  • some recent advice about audio description, including advice from visually impaired people themselves (Cox, 2017, Partington, 2017), urges galleries to have a go at audio description, have fun and be creative, rather than worrying about getting everything perfect straight away. Kleege (2018, p. 121) goes further and urges describers to ‘abandon the pretext of objectivity’.
  • not too onerous a task for writers to create one description – I’ll draw up guidelines, and ask them to cover the basics while encouraging creativity.

Aims:

  • To experiment with audio description
  • To be creative and have fun
  • To improve access to works in the gallery
  • To bring visually impaired and sighted people together
  • To show that creative audio description is of interest and engages a broad audience, not just blind and partially sighted people
  • To get people talking about art and about accessibility
  • To produce guidelines for audio describing artworks
  • To pilot a low-cost approach that could be easily replicated e.g. working in partnership with writers’ groups.

(The picture shows an audio described event at the Royal Academy).

 

References

Cox, L. (2017) ‘Creative Audio Description’ in Shape Arts Ways of Seeing Art. London: Shape Arts pp. 14-18.

Kleege, G. (2018) More Than Meets the Eye: What Blindness Brings to Art. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Partington, Z. (2017) ‘Panel discussion’ at Bridging the Gaps: Exploring the link Between Art and Audio Description, 24 February. London: Tate Modern. Available at: http://www.tate.org.uk/whats-on/tate-modern/tate-exchange/workshop/
ways-seeing-art
 (Accessed: 27 April 2018).

More Than Meets the Eye

My new favourite book for this project is More Than Meets the Eye: What Blindness Brings to Art by Georgina Kleege (2018).The picture shows Kleege at an exhibition she recently curated (Wilson, 2018). I’ve already listed Kleege as one of the visually impaired writers, curators or artists who I’m influenced by.  The very title of Kleege’s latest book would be an apt title for my research, which investigates what assets blind and partially sighted people bring to art galleries and the appreciation of art.

In the introduction, Kleege sets out her own position:

Rather, the hope is that blind people can bring a perspective that has not been articulated before. If we abandon the notion that blindness can only diminish, damage or destroy identity, and adopt instead the idea that the experience of blindness, in all its varieties, can in fact shape and inform other facets of personality and personal history, we will move towards a more genuinely inclusive society. The integration of blind perceptions and experiences will change the foundational assumptions of the culture; change how the human condition is defined. And I believe this is the goal worth working toward. (2018, p. 13)

From this position, Kleege calls for a rethinking of the accommodations made for blind and partially sighted people in galleries. I’m particularly struck by her critique of audio description, and her call ‘to abandon the pretext of objectivity. It is impossible and beside the point’ (2018, p. 121).  I’ll pass this on to the describers in my curated event.

In tune with the blind and partially sighted people I’ve been talking to in Leeds Art Gallery, Kleege wants an end to segregated provision, such as touch tours, in galleries and museums.  Apart from the problematic nature of segregation, this needs to happen because perceiving art using non-visual senses is a way of opening up access and engagement with art and heritage for everyone, not just disabled people. And this isn’t just Kleege’s opinion, of course. I’ve already mentioned Candlin’s writing on touch that argues for recognition of touch as a way of understanding and learning, that supports intellectual enquiry (Candlin, 2010).

A final word from Kleege:

I hope that audio description can be elevated from its current status as a segregated accommodation outside the general public’s awareness and launched into the new media – a literary / interpretative form with infinite possibilities. (2018, p. 108).

References

Candlin, F. (2010) Art, Museums and Touch. Manchester: Manchester University Press.

Kleege, G. (2018) More Than Meets the Eye: What Blindness Brings to Art. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Wilson, E. (2018) ‘How a Blind Professor Is Helping Other Sight-Impaired Museum Visitors Experience Art’, HyperAllergic 17 January. Available at: https://hyperallergic.com/421929/haptic-encounters-contemporary-jewish-museum-san-francisco/ (Accessed: 3 May 2018).

Thinking about audio description

An earlier post mentioned how I’d been turned on to audio description. Of course it’s an area of interest, but reading more about how it is developing in terms of art has got me hooked. Audio description i.e. spoken description, either recorded or live, of visual images or objects, is well established in theatre, cinema and television (although not universally available). Now it is developing in terms of visual arts and sculpture.

Blind and partially sighted people I’ve spoken to so far haven’t experienced audio description in a gallery or museum, but regularly use it when watching television, or at the theatre.

People are dotted about in a bright exhibition gallery. On the left is a bright sculpture comprising 4 walking frames on a round turntable. In the centre a white display board with text and images.
Exhibition at Shape Arts & Tate Exchange Ways of Seeing Art event, 2017

Ways of Seeing Art booklet coverThere are some great resources, written (Shape Arts, 2017; Fisher, 2017) and online (Partington, 2013; Sensing Culture, 2018; Shape Arts, 2017). I particularly like the videos that Partington produced for the RNIB’s Opening Up Creative Culture project (2013) and the booklet Shape published, Ways of Seeing Art (2017) after their workshop series at Tate Exchanges, under the same title.

 

Some key messages I’ve picked up:

  • Have a go, don’t worry about getting it right first time
  • Collaborate
  • Involve blind and partially sighted people
  • State the obvious
  • Describe the impact of the artwork, the wow factor
  • Have fun, be creative!

Zoe Partington‘s name keeps cropping up. She’s a consultant and artist who’s done loads of work with museums around the UK and the world, and is brilliant! I’ll contact her next.

Meanwhile, I’m mulling over how I might use this new learning …

 

References

Clarke, J. (2007) ‘Standard Techniques in Audio Description’, Joe Clark: Accessibility, Design, Writing. Available at: https://joeclark.org/access/description/ad-principles.html (Accessed: 10 May 2018).

Cox, L. (2017) ‘Creative Audio Description’ in Shape Arts Ways of Seeing Art: Exploring the Links Between Art and Audio Description. London: Shape Arts pp. 14-18.

Giansante, L. (no date) ‘Writing Verbal Descriptions for Audio Guides’ Art Beyond Sight. Available at: http://www.artbeyondsight.org/mei/verbal-description-training/writing-verbal-description-for-audio-guides/ (Accessed: 10 May 2018).

Fryer, L. (2016) An Introduction to Audio Description: A Practical Guide. London: Routledge.

Partington, Z. (2013) ‘Opening Up Creative Culture’ [Video series] Youtube. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCnviddUNHn5ynIPAXO6x5EQ (Accessed: 27 April 2018).

Partington, Z. (2017) [Panel discussion] at Ways of Seeing Art, Tate Modern, London, 23-26 February. Available at: http://www.tate.org.uk/whats-on/tate-modern/tate-exchange/workshop/ways-seeing-art (Accessed: 27 April 2018).

Sensing Culture (2018) Audio Description. Available at: http://www.sensingculture.org.uk/resources/audio-description/ (Accessed: 30 June 2018).

Shape Arts and Tate Exchange (2017) [Workshop series] Ways of Seeing Art, Tate Modern, London, 23-26 February. Available at: http://www.tate.org.uk/whats-on/tate-modern/tate-exchange/workshop/ways-seeing-art (Accessed: 27 April 2018).

Shape Arts (2017) Ways of Seeing Art: Exploring the Links Between Art and Audio Description. London: Shape Arts. Available at: https://issuu.com/shapearts/docs/shape_2017_tateexchange_book_final_ (Accessed: 10 May 2018).